Freedom is the cornerstone from which African Americans have built their lives. Whether enslaved or free Americans of African descent have always desired freedom. That desire has manifested in numerous ways both in their ancestral homeland, the continent of Africa, as well as in the Americas. The Senator John Heinz History Center has developed a micro site to feature its award winning exhibition project that chronicles the African experience in America and its manifestation of freedom in Pittsburgh and elsewhere. This site is an online version of a larger project that included an award winning exhibition, public programs, research, workshops, and education lessons and teachings.
Caron, Savery M. It is sometimes called: white Hardcore milf redhead, wild spinach, frost blite, baconweed, muckweed, fat-hen, and pigweed. A company of cavalry, with a pack of fierce Siberian blood-hounds were Pleurisy slavery out in search of me… The colored people and I searched all one day … to find some herbs with which I could have compounded a subtle poison, and by means of pieces of meat saturated with it, I could have destroyed a large pack of hounds. Dock root is a treatment for itch, syphilis, and as a laxative. As a result, millions of African Americans who could not escape or change the conditions in their society were trapped in a social, political, and economic subculture orchestrated Pleurisy slavery whites to protect white power and cultural Pleuurisy. All of the Custis slaves, however, were slaveey property of John Parke CustisMartha Washington's son by her late husband.
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- Pleurisy occurs when the pleura — a membrane consisting of a layer of tissue that lines the chest cavity and a layer of tissue that surrounds the lungs — becomes inflamed.
- Pleurisy , also known as pleuritis , is inflammation of the membranes that surround the lungs and line the chest cavity pleurae.
- Key was inspired upon viewing the American flag still flying over the fort at dawn, and wrote the poem or lyric "Defence of Fort M'Henry", which was published within a week with the suggested tune the popular song "To Anacreon in Heaven.
George Washington owned enslaved people from age eleven until his death, when his will promised his slaves freedom. His actions and private statements suggest a long evolution in his stance on slavery, based on experience and a possible awakening of conscience. Born in , Washington came of age in a time when large-scale tobacco planting, carried out by enslaved labor , dominated the economy and society of colonial Virginia.
Washington made no official public statements on slavery or emancipation as a Virginia legislator, as a military officer, or as president of the United States. As a young man he acted as most of his slaveholding peers did—making full and lawful use of slave labor, buying and selling slaves , and even raffling off a debtor's slaves, including children, to recoup a loan. His marriage brought many slaves under his control, but he did not legally own these "dower" slaves. After the American Revolution — his private statements became more in line with abolitionist goals than with the economic and political positions of his Virginia peers, until he reached the point, around , when his "regret" over slavery grew so strong that he eventually rewrote his will with provisions to free slaves.
Washington was the only southern Founding Father to free all his slaves. In his twenties Washington came into possession of the Mount Vernon plantation after the death of his brother, and commenced planting tobacco while still in colonial military service.
His marriage in to Martha Dandridge Custis , the very wealthy widow of Daniel Parke Custis , vastly increased Washington's income and labor force. More than eighty Custis slaves moved to Mount Vernon.
All of the Custis slaves, however, were the property of John Parke Custis , Martha Washington's son by her late husband. George and Martha Washington could neither sell nor manumit any of the Custis slaves, nor the future offspring of female Custis slaves, as long as they were part of the Custis estate.
Though Washington came to question slavery and eventually freed his slaves, he was never a lenient manager. He connected the success of his farms with the productivity of his slaves and, because he was frequently away on public service, with the effective supervision of his managers and overseers. To his repeated exasperation, he faced problems with enslaved workers, overseers, and paid white workers who stole, drank, and lazed about.
In fact, some scholars attribute Washington's changing views on slavery not as a moral awakening but as an economic one in which he determined that managing slaves on his farms wasn't financially efficient.
He fed , clothed , and housed his slaves poorly, candidly admitting that some of the dwellings he provided were so miserable that a white person would never consent to live in them. As a matter of routine, Washington separated husbands and wives , housing male artisans close to the mansion, where their skills were needed, while keeping their wives and children on his outlying farms, miles away. Though women and girls worked in the mansion household as seamstresses, cooks, and maids, the historian Lorena S.
Walsh found that about When he was away, Washington scrutinized weekly reports sent by his manager, in one instance detecting a scheme by his slaves to steal wool by claiming it was too dirty to spin: "I perceive by the Spinning Report of last week, that each of the spinners have deducted half a pound for dirty wool. He complained that the plantation's wagons seemed to go off and "go to sleep. Washington instructed one overseer: "Be constantly with your people when there.
There is no other sure way of getting work well done and quietly by negroes; for when an Overlooker's back is turned, the most of them will slight their work, or be idle altogether. When the manager reported he was "determined to lower her Spirit or skin her Back," Washington replied : "If She, or any other of the Servants will not do their duty by fair means, or are impertinent, correction as the only alternative must be administered.
Knowing that one of his overseers, Hyland Crow, was particularly cruel, Washington instructed his manager not to let Crow punish anyone: "I have reason to believe he is swayed more by passion than judgment in all his corrections. If Washington at times regretted the fierceness of his overseers, he also used it as a threat against house slaves, suggesting that, for slaves, life in the field was very much harsher than life at the mansion.
When the productivity of the seamstresses at Mount Vernon fell off, Washington sent a blunt warning through his manager: "Tell them … from me, that what has been done, shall be done by fair or foul means … otherwise they will be sent to the several Plantations, and be placed as common laborers under the Overseers thereat.
Clothing shortages occasionally became acute. An overseer reported one December that the children on an outlying farm had no clothes at all. Washington complained about a seamstress making long pants rather than the regulation short breeches because he didn't want to use extra cloth. He was also very sparing of blankets. Mothers received one for each newborn, but slaves had to wait years to get a fresh blanket. Washington ordered the slaves to use their blankets to gather leaves for livestock beds: "Let the People, with their blankets, go every evening … to the nearest wood and fill them with leaves.
The hogs also in pens must be well bedded in leaves. Washington monitored the health of his slaves. In one instance , when a slave named Cupid was seriously ill with pleurisy, Washington had him carried in a cart to the mansion "for better care of him. Two of the household's most favored slaves, Martha Washington's personal maid, Oney Judge , and the chef, Hercules, ran away from the Washingtons despite their privileged positions.
Judge said that she fled because of her "thirst for compleat freedom. Count Julian Niemcewicz, a Polish visitor who spent twelve days at Mount Vernon in , wrote, "General Washington treats his slaves far more humanely than do his fellow citizens of Virginia.
Most of these gentlemen give to their Blacks only bread, water and blows. They are more miserable than the most miserable of the cottages of our peasants. The husband and wife sleep on a mean pallet, the children on the ground; a very bad fireplace, some utensils for cooking, but in the middle of this poverty some cups and a teapot.
A boy of 15 was lying on the ground, sick, and in terrible convulsions. The General had sent to Alexandria to fetch a doctor. A very small garden planted with vegetables was close by, with five or six hens, each one leading 10 to 15 chickens. It is the only comfort that is permitted them; for they may not keep either ducks, geese, or pigs.
They sell the poultry in Alexandria and procure for themselves a few amenities. The Washingtons followed elite Virginia custom and staffed their household with mulatto, or mixed-race, servants. A foreign visitor to Mount Vernon encountered a small boy "whose hair and skin color were so like our own that if I had not been told, I should never have suspected his [African] ancestry. He is nevertheless a slave for the rest of his life. Descendants of the slave West Ford have long claimed that George Washington was his father , but a compelling argument can be made that Ford's father was the general's nephew Bushrod Washington.
When Bushrod Washington, an associate justice of the U. Supreme Court , inherited Mount Vernon, he made Ford his manager. In his will he bequeathed acres of land to Ford, who had been manumitted at the request of Bushrod Washington's mother, Hannah Bushrod Washington.
While George Washington may not have been Ford's father, there is little doubt that, through Bushrod Washington, he had black kin. Martha Washington, meanwhile, owned a half-sister, her slave Ann Dandridge. At the outset of the American Revolution in , General Washington and his top officers expelled black soldiers, both free and enslaved, from the army and forbade their future enlistment.
But Washington quickly reversed course, honoring a direct appeal from black troops who were, he wrote , "very much dissatisfied at being discarded. During the siege of Boston, in a sharp break with his southern customs, he invited the African-born poet Phillis Wheatley to visit him at headquarters after she had written a long patriotic tribute to him and the Continental Army.
He personally arranged to have the poem published in a prominent national journal Thomas Jefferson , in contrast, derided Wheatley , whose works won high praise on both sides of the Atlantic. At Valley Forge, Washington approved a plan to recruit black troops and never placed any limit on their numbers. Late in the war a foreign officer estimated that blacks made up one-quarter of Washington's army. Though the actual figure is probably lower, Washington commanded the most integrated American army until probably the Vietnam War — Washington allowed his aides John Laurens and Alexander Hamilton to attempt raising battalions of slaves in Georgia and South Carolina, under threat of British invasion.
Hamilton wrote , "An essential part of the plan is to give them their freedom with their muskets," but Washington expressed serious reservations and did not lend his full support. To some extent, Washington may have contemplated how slavery itself encouraged such "selfish passions. After the war, Washington came under intense pressure to free his slaves from his friend and comrade the Marquis de Lafayette. Lafayette told the general that if he set an example, his immense prestige would inspire others to follow it.
Refusing to take any action, Washington, in private discussions with Lafayette and others, expressed a desire to see, some day, a gradual emancipation of all American slaves enacted by legislation—a measured solution in keeping with Washington's republican ideals.
But by the end of the s, slavery's injustice weighed very heavily on Washington's conscience. He spoke of holding slaves as his only source of "regret"; he wrote that he owned human property "very repugnantly to my feelings," that he wished to "liberate" his slaves, and that such an act would be in keeping with "the Justice of the Creator. Washington's public actions as president did nothing to dismantle southern slaveholding society, including his signing of the Fugitive Slave Act , which allowed slaveholders to capture escaped slaves, even in free states or territory, and return them to bondage.
The historian Charles Rappleye, however, found evidence that in President Washington, acting secretly through a back channel, helped introduce Quaker petitions to Congress advocating a national emancipation effort and a ban on the international slave trade. The proposals provoked fierce opposition. Congressman James Madison scuttled the plan and engineered passage of a resolution that actually enhanced legal protections for slavery.
In the wake of this defeat, to which his name had not been publicly linked, Washington perhaps despaired of legislative action and recalled Lafayette's urging that he lead by personal example. Well aware that a manumission, even a private one, by a sitting president would be a political bombshell, Washington twice laid plans to free his slaves during his presidency.
In the first instance he was unable to arrange financing for the manumission. In the second instance—an extremely ambitious plan—he envisioned freeing all the slaves at Mount Vernon, more than , including those belonging to his wife's family as part of the Custis estate. He proposed to hire back the newly freed people on wages or crop shares. But the plan went nowhere when the chief heir of the Custis estate refused to cooperate by manumitting the dower slaves. In the last summer of his life Washington wrote a will freeing all his own slaves, but he kept the document and its contents secret until he was on his deathbed, most likely fearing that his heirs would attempt to dissuade him from releasing valuable property.
Washington's will decreed that all of his slaves be freed upon the death of his wife. This action was made possible by a Virginia law passed in that allowed slaveholders to manumit their slaves at will, without government approval. Washington conspicuously noted that it was not "in my power" to manumit the Mount Vernon slaves owned by the Custis heirs, perhaps urging the Custis family to follow his example and manumit the dower slaves themselves.
Washington never articulated any other strategy for freeing the dower slaves, but some scholars speculate that Washington could have followed Virginia law and financially compensated the Custis estate for the slaves' manumission with one historian estimating the total cost to Washington as 6, pounds sterling.
Martha Washington chose to enact the will's manumission instructions a year after Washington's death, but the Custis slaves did indeed remain enslaved. But the very notion of education for slaves was revolutionary—with this clause Washington declared that, with education and the opportunity to work, freed slaves could prosper.
Arguably to that end, he further specified: "I do hereby expressly forbid the Sale, or transportation out of the said Commonwealth, of any Slave I may die possessed of, under any pretence whatsoever.
His stipulations were so extraordinary that he expected his heirs to resist fulfilling them, so he wrote: "And I do moreover most pointedly, and most solemnly enjoin it upon my Executors hereafter named, or the Survivors of them, to see that this clause [emphasis original] respecting Slaves, and every part thereof be religiously fulfilled at the Epoch at which it is directed to take place; without evasion, neglect or delay.
Ten years before his death, Washington told David Humphreys that, with the proper opportunities, "the rising generation" of slaves could create for themselves "a destiny different from that in which they were born"—suggesting that Washington believed servitude was not the natural condition of black people and that the abolition of slavery was within the nation's grasp.
Wiencek, H. George Washington and Slavery. In Encyclopedia Virginia. Wiencek, Henry. Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, 17 Dec. Thank you!
Lysosome granules biogenic amines Histamine Serotonin. Oxford Desk Reference. Extracts from the Brazilian folk remedy Wilbrandia ebracteata "Taiuia" have been shown to reduce inflammation in the pleural cavity of mice. Treatment of pleurisy involves pain control and treating the underlying condition. Nominated for U.
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In an April trial that attracted nationwide attention, Key charged that Crandall's actions instigated slaves to rebel. Crandall's attorneys acknowledged he opposed slavery, but denied any intent or actions to encourage rebellion.
Key, in his final address to the jury said:. Are you willing, gentlemen, to abandon your country, to permit it to be taken from you, and occupied by the abolitionist, according to whose taste it is to associate and amalgamate with the negro? Or, gentlemen, on the other hand, are there laws in this community to defend you from the immediate abolitionist, who would open upon you the floodgates of such extensive wickedness and mischief?
The jury acquitted Crandall. This defeat, as well as family tragedies in , diminished Key's political ambition. He resigned as district attorney in He remained a staunch proponent of African colonization and a strong critic of the antislavery movement until his death. Key was a devout and prominent Episcopalian. In his youth, he almost became an Episcopal priest rather than a lawyer.
Throughout his life he sprinkled biblical references in his correspondence. He also helped found or financially support several parishes in the new national capital, including St. From until his death in , Key was associated with the American Bible Society. The US national motto " In God We Trust " was adapted from a phrase in Key's "Star-Spangled Banner", the fourth stanza of which includes the phrase, "And this be our motto: 'In God is our Trust'", leading some to speculate that the phrase was derived from the song.
On January 11, , Key died at the home of his daughter Elizabeth Howard in Baltimore from pleurisy  at age The Key Monument Association erected a memorial in and the remains of both Francis Scott Key and his wife, Mary Tayloe Lloyd, were placed in a crypt in the base of the monument.
Taney , who would later become Chief Justice of the United States. Senator George H. Pendleton  and another, Ellen Lloyd, married Simon F.
Key was a distant cousin and the namesake of F. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 27 October Francis Scott Key. Baltimore , Maryland, U. Main article: The Star-Spangled Banner. The Star-Spangled Banner Biography portal Poetry portal. Soylent Communications. Retrieved July 7, Hall of Fame. Retrieved October 16, Retrieved August 13, Huffington Post.
Retrieved September 22, Notes on the United States of North America, during a phrenological visit in Retrieved August 9, Washington Examiner.
The South in American Literature: — Retrieved September 11, Handbook of Texas Online. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Retrieved July 9, The Globalist. Retrieved October 7, Archived from the original on July 23, Retrieved November 25, Retrieved February 24, Encyclopedia of American war literature. Westport, Conn. Retrieved May 26, Ohio Civil War Central. March Retrieved June 26, Sickles of New York".
Hartford Daily Courant. March 1, Retrieved November 30, For more than a year there have been floating rumors of improper intimacy between Mr. Key and Mrs. Sickles They have from time to time attended parties, the opera, and rode out together.
Sickles has heard of these reports, but would never credit them until Thursday evening last. On that evening, just as a party was about breaking up at his house, Mr Sickles received among his papers Berkeley, California : University of California Press. Retrieved April 13, Heritage Preservation. Retrieved April 26, Lee equestrian bronze in Richmond, Virginia, and collaboration on General Lafayette in the District of Columbia. Historical Marker Database. February 23, Retrieved February 6, Maryland Transportation Authority.
Retrieved September 10, Songwriters Hall of Fame. Retrieved October 6, The Baltimore Sun. The layers act like two pieces of smooth satin gliding past each other, allowing your lungs to expand and contract when you breathe without any resistance from the lining of the chest wall.
Pleurisy occurs when the pleura becomes irritated and inflamed. As a result, the two layers of the pleural membrane rub against each other like two pieces of sandpaper, producing pain when you inhale and exhale. The pleuritic pain lessens or stops when you hold your breath. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version.
Pleurisy Pleurisy occurs when the pleura — a membrane consisting of a layer of tissue that lines the chest cavity and a layer of tissue that surrounds the lungs — becomes inflamed.
Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic. Share on: Facebook Twitter. Show references What are pleurisy and other pleural disorders? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Accessed Sept. Ferri FF. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor Philadelphia, Pa. Mason RJ, et al. Pleural effusion. Kliegman RM, et al. Pleurisy, pleural effusions, and empyema. In: Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics.
Patient information: Pleuritic chest pain.
George Washington and slavery - Wikipedia
Curtin, Philip D. Curtin on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of African Studies at the University of Wisconsin PDF 9. This copyright is independent of any copyright on specific items within the collection. Because the University of Wisconsin Libraries generally do not own the rights to materials in these collections, please consult copyright or ownership information provided with individual items.
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Gallery view Page image PDF of section 9. Page View Curtin, Philip D. As Doctor Horner reported, it was not common among the "opulent" of the city but "ordinary" among the "indigent" Horner Other reasons included a "tendency for active tuberculosis to develop during puberty, during young adulthood in females," and African girls were introduced to the city as teenagers and in a partic- ularly stressful manner.
Furthermore, pregnancy enhances the risk of tuberculosis Waksman ; Fox et al. Thus, rural girls in the prime age group entered the dark, crowded households of a city filled with immigrants from the tuberculosis-infested cities of Europe and the United States and, not surprisingly, caught the disease.
Other causes of sickness and death were dysentery, small pox, tetanus, typhoid fever, hepatitis, gastro-enteritis, pneumonia, pleurisy, bronchitis, childhood diseases such as measles, scarlet fever, and whooping cough, and many unknown fevers. The known fevers such as malaria and yellow fever had a major impact on the health of the slave population. In the case of malaria, slave women without the sickle cell trait suffered from the usual complications that accompany the disease: spontaneous abortions, difficult pregnancies, and deaths during childbirth.
Moreover, malaria can be deadly to children, and slave children who were also malnourished were more likely to die in an attack of the fever. Children who inherited the sickle cell trait had some resistance to malaria but were exposed to the debilitation of sickle cell anemia.
After yellow fever and cholera killed many slaves, includ- ing women and children, in repeated epidemics. Perhaps the most feared diseases that attacked slaves were "opthalmia," a contagious eye disease of the slave trade that blinded them, elephantiasis that disfigured them, and leprosy that led to their isolation in the Lazarus Hospital.
The venereal diseases contracted from the transient male population of a port city also played havoc with the health of many slave women. While many Africans who had yaws may have had some resistance to syphilis, which was then endemic in the city, they had no protection against gonorrhea, which seriously affects fertility in women, or other venereal diseases.
Other common health problems included worms, intestinal parasites, and especially hookworm. The extreme weakness and lassitude that owners attributed to laziness were often due to some form of parasite. During the rainy season, colds, influ- enza, and bronchitis further weakened slaves and often led to deaths due to pneumonia.
Other slaves suffered from diarrhea, headaches, nervousness, and skin rashes. The list of debil- itating, deadly diseases or their symptoms is interminable. What killed slave women and affected their child-bearing abilities were the diseases of western urban civilization, i.