Here are six of the most common medications that can affect your period, and all of the deets on the side effects they could be generating. Most of us are taking at least one of these…. As it turns out, aspirin could actually be making the situation You're considered to have a particularly heavy period when you have to change your protection far more often than recommended, need to combine tampon and pads, or regularly leak through your clothes or onto your bedding. And whilst aspirin might not be the main cause of the problem, switching to another painkiller couldn't hurt.
Gonadotropin responses pdriods variable, but no significant changes were recorded during treatment. Mood changes. Reprints and Permissions. This drug may affect allergy skin tests. Related Drugs. Give this list to your doctor. Tell your doctor and pharmacist about Cyproheptadine and menstrual periods of mensrrual drugs prescription or OTC, natural products, vitamins and health problems. This hypothesis can be confirmed because our study showed that married women used Cyproheptadine less than single women probably because the single women will be more constrained to want to attract men. See also: Cyproheptadine side effects in more detail.
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Prevalence and risk factors of anabolic —androgenic steroids Cyproheptadnie among adolescents and young adults in Poland. Statistical analyses were performed using the statistical Cyproheptadine and menstrual periods for social sciences SPSS of the University of Kinshasa version Health Promot Int. Diabetes in Mature Cats. Steroids for Treating Cats. Approach to abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-age women. However, menstrual cycles tend to shorten and become more regular as you age. External link. You remember when Fluffy once pestered you incessantly if he was hungry and wanted to eat? See also: Cyproheptadine dosage information in more detail.
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- You remember when Fluffy once pestered you incessantly if he was hungry and wanted to eat?
- Definition: Menorrhagia is defined as excessively heavy or prolonged uterine bleeding with clots but with or without menstrual cramps which can be caused by medical problems or hormone imbalances.
- Obesity is one of the main risk factors of non-communicable diseases NCDs worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa.
- Cyproheptadine hydrochloride CH is a first-generation antihistamine which is used as an appetite stimulant.
- Your menstrual cycle can say a lot about your health.
- Many women don't realize menstrual problems can be a symptom of an undiagnosed thyroid condition.
Metrics details. Obesity is one of the main risk factors of non-communicable diseases NCDs worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The use of Cyproheptadine increases body weight and the risk of becoming obese.
The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of Cyproheptadine misuse in the Kinshasa population and to describe its characteristics. Mean and standard deviation were used for quantitative variables and frequency and percentage for categorical variables.
In order to determine the relationship between socio-demographic status and Cyproheptadine use the Chi-square test was conducted. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of Cyproheptadine use. The majority of the study participants More than half of the participants Half of the study participants This study shows that the Kinshasa population is significantly misusing Cyproheptadine and is highly exposed to its risk, including obesity.
The World Health Organization WHO estimates that, within the next few years, non-communicable diseases NCDs will become the principal global causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide [ 1 ]. Obesity is among the main risk factors of NCDs such as cardiovascular diseases CVDs , including arterial hypertension, Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus, and metabolic syndrome; chronic kidney disease, osteoarthritis and cancers [ 2 — 4 ]. This is mainly due to the changing lifestyle of the population in relation to urbanization [ 6 , 7 ].
The study by Dalal et al. This wide range of proportions can be explained by the study methods used as well as the population studied. During , the prevalence of obesity in the DRC was estimated to be Studies carried out in the DRC showed that obesity was a significant predictor of mortality among hypertensive patients and a significant predictor of chronic kidney diseases [ 10 , 11 ]. This shows that obesity is a major public health issue in the country. Therefore, knowledge of each risk factor leading to obesity is important in managing modifiable NCDs risk factors.
Several factors have been reported as risk factors of obesity. These include genetic predisposition, diet, physical activity, gender, cultural norms, and physical environment [ 3 ]. The most challenging is that several African societies do not recognize obesity as a health problem, but as a display of social well being and beauty [ 12 — 14 ]. For example, a study conducted in a multi-ethnic Caribbean population showed that overweight African women were more likely to be satisfied with their body image than non-African overweight women [ 15 ].
It is reported too that overweight and obese African women do not consider themselves as such, thereby reducing the likelihood of them attempting to lose weight [ 16 ]. C4 is a commercial name for Cyproheptadine, a first-generation antihistamine with anti-serotonergic activity indicated for treatment of rhinitis, conjunctivitis and urticaria [ 17 ] but which has appetite stimulation as a side effect thereby increasing food intake and inducing weight gain.
It is by using this side effect that Cyproheptadine is prescribed in the treatment of anorexia, cachexia, and severe malnutrition. The effect of Cyproheptadine on weight gain has been confirmed in many studies. For example, a randomized controlled trial by Couluris et al. These studies reported a high average weight gain in the group of patients receiving Cyproheptadine than in the placebo group [ 19 , 20 ].
This inappropriate use of Cyproheptadine can lead unconsciously to obesity while users aim for roundness. Currently no study has been carried out for describing this non-communicable disease risk behaviour in the Kinshasa population.
This study aims to determine the prevalence of the misuse of Cyproheptadine in the Kinshasa population and to describe its characteristics. Between May and August a cross-sectional study was carried out in two town sectors of Kinshasa.
These town sectors were selected purposively because of their location in the central part of Kinshasa and their population behaviour to the up-to-date fashion. Thereafter, a multi-stage sampling was used for identifying study participants. The first stage involved selection of three neighborhoods in each town sector using a simple random sampling technique.
In the second stage, in each selected neighborhood three streets were selected using also a simple random sampling technique. A total of participants were surveyed. A written informed consent according to the Helsinki declaration II was obtained from all the study participants.
A face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The content of the first part of the questionnaire included socio-demographic variables gender, age, education level, and marital status ; followed in the second part by the description of Cyproheptadine use duration and frequency of use; reasons of use; sources of recommendation and procurement methods; mode of administration and the combination drugs used with Cyproheptadine.
The use of Cyproheptadine was measured by participants self-reported. In this study, the misuse of Cyproheptadine is definedas its use for gaining weight and having a roundness physical appearance and not for allergia, real anorexia, severe malnutrition or cachexia.
Statistical analyses were performed using the statistical package for social sciences SPSS of the University of Kinshasa version In order to determine the relationship between socio-demographic status and Cyproheptadine use Chi-square test was performed.
Student t -test was used to compare means age of Cyproheptadine users and non-users. There were females Participants had a mean age of All statistically significant variables identified in the univariate analysis were included in the model which found two variables independently associated to misuse of Cyproheptadine, sex and age-groups. The main recommended sources of Cyproheptadine mentioned by Cyproheptadine users were firstly, friends Self-prescription was the most common procurement method The main mode of administration was oral One hundred and thirty nine Cyproheptadine users Two hundred and twenty five users Overall, However, the majority of users declared to be satisfied This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Cyproheptadine misuse in the Kinshasa population and to describe its characteristics.
The main findings of this study were as follows: i the prevalence of Cyproheptadine misuse was In the Literature, we did not find any paper that discussed Cyproheptadine use in the context of this study. In this study, then, the prevalence of Cyproheptadine misuse will be discussed with the prevalence of others drugs inappropriately used for increasing the body weight, muscle mass, strength in adults and an improved appearance.
The most reported drug is androgenic-anabolic steroid which was mostly used by athletes and teenagers [ 21 , 22 ]. The prevalence of Cyproheptadine misuse reported by this study was high comparatively to the prevalence of androgenic-anabolic steroid use reported in previous studies [ 22 — 24 ]. The prevalence difference may be explained by the price of Cyproheptadine which is cheaper than androgenic-anabolic steroid.
The medical prescription was less mentioned by users as the procurement method of Cyproheptadine, it corroborates with previous studies that also reported self-prescription as the most common procurement method of androgenic-anabolic steroid [ 21 ].
This study reported the long term misuse of Cyproheptadine, even though the information about the intake posology has been collected, it has not been reported because of the various pharmaceutical forms taken by users and the lack of precision in the posology. From the Literature, Cyproheptadine can reportedly produce serious side effects especially when taken in overdose; that includes hallucinations, convulsions, central nervous system depression and sudden cardiac arrest [ 25 ].
Death cases were also reported as a result of Cyproheptadine intoxication at a concentration of more than 15 times that of therapeutic. On routine daily use, Cyproheptadine may cause several side effects, including drowsiness, tired feeling, insomnia, spinning sensation, blurred vision, loss of coordination, upset stomach, nausea, diarrhea, and weight gain. We believe that the users of Cyproheptadine in Kinshasa are exposed to these risks].
It is known that a long-term corticotherapy can cause side effects such as hyperglycemia and diabetes, oedema, weight gain, hypertension and immune suppression [ 26 ]. In this study, the majority of Cyproheptadine users declared to take Cyproheptadine associated with Dexamethasone.
The knowledge of the side effects of Cyproheptadine does not prevent the use of Cyproheptadine because knowledge alone does not explain behaviour.
Perception of risk is a major component of behaviour [ 27 ]. However human behaviour on issues such as body image is not always rational. Rationality depends on what a person considers to be of importance, this is also proven by this study which reported that even people with a high level of education taking Cyproheptadine.
It is well established that females are more obese than males. A study conducted in South Africa showed that two factors can explain this difference in developing countries, childhood circumstances and adult socioeconomic status SES [ 28 ]. Evidence suggests that obesity independently increases the risk of CVD in women even in the absence of other metabolic abnormalities [ 29 ]. Despite a higher risk of obesity, females are more exposed to other obesogenic life style such as physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour [ 30 ].
This study also found that females were more frequent inappropriate users of Cyproheptadine than males. This high attraction to Cyproheptadine use by women can be explained by the fact that African women think that Black men find bigger women more attractive as described by Shoneye [ 16 ]. This hypothesis can be confirmed because our study showed that married women used Cyproheptadine less than single women probably because the single women will be more constrained to want to attract men.
This study reported that the misuse of Cyproheptadine decreases with age. Teenagers were among the age categories using more Cyproheptadine. Therefore, depending on the social context and social perception of beauty, teenagers may engage either in the weight loss or gain process. The perception of their body image is a key determinant of their dietary habits and weight management [ 31 ].
This may explain the use of Cyproheptadine by teenagers in our study. In contrast with a study carried out in Accra, the capital of Ghana, less than ten percent of women reported to try to increase their body mass by eating more foods.
This difference can be explained by the fact that the majority of women in the Ghana study This study has potential limitations. The two town sectors selected are not representative the whole population of Kinshasa; knowledge of the participants or their perception of risk for obesity and its complications were not assessed.
Also, the effect of Cyproheptadine on weight gain and obesity was not measured during the study. We surmise that the best design to show this association should be a prospective study. These issues need to be addressed in future studies. Nevertheless, this is the only study, to the best of our knowledge, which has described that phenomenon among the Congolese population of Kinshasa. Additionally, the multi-stage sampling and the multi-centricity of our study sample have improved the generalisability of the result.
This study shows that the Kinshasa population is significantly misusing Cyproheptadine and is highly exposed to its risk; including obesity. There is an urgent need to educate the community on the danger of substance abuse, such as Cyproheptadine and steroids.
Mputu , Dalton M. Approach to abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-age women. Mortality in second and third degree malnutrition. Insignificant height velocity in the current study might be due to short time follow-up visits. You Might Be Hyperthyroid If
Cyproheptadine and menstrual periods. Introduction
Cyproheptadine in the management of the galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndrome.
Medically reviewed by Drugs. Last updated on Jun 15, For all patients taking this medicine cyproheptadine tablets :. This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with this medicine cyproheptadine tablets. Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all of your drugs prescription or OTC, natural products, vitamins and health problems.
You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take this medicine cyproheptadine tablets with all of your drugs and health problems. Do not start, stop, or change the dose of any drug without checking with your doctor. Use this medicine cyproheptadine tablets as ordered by your doctor. Read all information given to you. Follow all instructions closely. Cyproheptadine dosage information in more detail. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:.
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Cyproheptadine side effects in more detail. If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. Be ready to tell or show what was taken, how much, and when it happened. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.
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